Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) is the hardiest sturgeon fish of the cartilage family. In the aquarium, it does not achieve such an impressive appearance. The content of sturgeon in the house is possible in a large aquarium with a volume of at least 200 liters, with mandatory aeration and water filtration. The sturgeon, which is contained as a decorative aquarium, looks very attractive in crystal clear water, has a beautiful body shape. The character of the fish is active due to the constant release of mucus on the skin - only when swimming it washes completely.
Arriving at 10 cm in length, the chickens have already escaped early stage diseases and can be raised for meat or eggs. The site is not responsible for the opinions published in the comments field, the responsibility of the form lies entirely with the author of the comment.
Eight years ago, a businessman from Tiraspol laid the foundations for a sturgeon farm. One of the largest sturgeon growers in Europe is growing in Tiraspol. Sturgeons are grown in a farm equipped with the latest technology and reach the size of a person, so that not only buyers, but also tourists come to admire the fine elaborate samples and as some of the most expensive culinary delicacies : caviar.
Habitat and lifestyle
Sterlet - river fish, which from time to time enters salty seawater. In the Volga there is a semi-boring sturgeon, which often swims in the upper part of the delta, where it spawns. Fish do not migrate en masse; in early autumn they gather in groups on the bottom, where they hibernate without touching the food. In early spring, when the ice begins to melt, the river sturgeon rises from the pit, moves along the river to lay its eggs.
Under these conditions, raising sturgeon on specially designated farms has become a very profitable business around the world, but it is very expensive. Sturion is a long-lived fish. In captivity, the sturgeon reaches the age of maturity at the age of eight. During this period, the sturgeon needs food and a favorable environment, which means filtered water and provides a constant temperature. In both summer and winter, the water temperature in sturgeon farms should not exceed 18 degrees Celsius. To meet these requirements, the Tiraspol sturgeon farm is equipped with modern Danish, German, Belgian, Russian, Japanese and local technologies.
The color of the sterlet's body varies from dark to light, depending on the area. Sterlets with a gray-brown back, a yellowish abdomen and gray fins are mainly found. There are also sterlet albinos with a light golden or pure white body. People called such unusual fish "princes" due to a rare catch.
Graduates are fed with food from the Netherlands. Simply growing sturgeons is not enough to guarantee profits. It is said that whoever controls the processing is actually the best deal. That is why the Tiraspol complex has a processing center with a capacity of around 650 tons of seafood per year. In total, about 117 types of smoked, salted or dried fish products are produced here. Processing offers caviar producers a steady income and 130 employees ensure safe work.
This sturgeon prefers very deep places, bottom sands, tries not to touch anyone and leads a calm and moderate life. When evening comes, the fish run aground, where in coastal minks it looks for insects that may inadvertently fall into its open mouth.
Fish is of industrial importance, population decline has become the reason for the inclusion of the species in the International Red Book.
This is not the only future sturgeon breeding plan in Tiraspol. A businessman sees an opportunity to profit from glue production from sturgeons. It is used to restore icons, paintings and furniture, and the current prices are high. Due to the high protein content of about 80%, sturgeon glue gives wood resistance for over 160 years. Unlike other glue animals, the sturgeon stick sticks very well and has a low viscosity.
A Hungarian investor has found the key to business success in Romania. Aquaculture specialist, he built an ultramodern farm in Russia, in Bihor county, where three species of trout and one sturgeon grow. Four years ago, Zoltan Jovan came to Rosia. At first he wanted to open a small pasture, but realized the area had potential and changed his plans. Now it has a farm of 15 ponds, where three species of trout grow - Arctic, gold and rainbow, as well as sturgeon species - Siberian sandstone.
Watch the sterlet flock.
"They have adapted very easily to the conditions here and their growth is almost impressive," said Zoltan Jovan. The Hungarian farmer took advantage of his acquired experience and numerous field patents and even built fish ponds. The water recirculation and filtration system is also of our invention.
"The strength of these farms is their ultra-mobility, and they can be dismantled and moved to 4-5 other countries as well, and the land remains the same as it was originally," Zoltan said. With four employees, one person barely meets the needs of customers across the country, who stay online for several weeks.
Small sterlet aquarium - about 17 cm in length, white-black color. In captivity it grows slowly.
Conditions of detention
It is important that the sturgeon is in clean water with constant parameters. Therefore, the filtration and aeration system in the aquarium must meet all the requirements for the conservation of fish. Filter performance - 6 volumes per hour. The best option is to build an aquarium with running water in which there will be no plants. Due to the peculiarities of its body (the presence of thorns), the sturgeon easily gets entangled in the vegetation, which can end fatally.
Required water temperature in the aquarium: 15-20 degrees Celsius, acidity - pH 6.5-8.5, water hardness 6-25 dGH.
Sturgeon is a predator, so in the aquarium it should be fed live food, sometimes fish. He likes insects and shellfish. They have a small mouth in which there is not a single tooth. Sterlet can be fed earthworms, earthworms, mumps, enkhitrei, and beef. The oral apparatus is designed in such a way that the fish feed from below.
Look at the sturgeons in the aquarium.
Freshwater sturgeon can be kept together with river fish: armored pike, arovani, chain catfish and other sturgeons. They cannot be accommodated with small fish (which will be eaten) and with very large fish which deprive them of food. To add close to it, you need an aquarium with a volume of at least 500 liters.
Once a week, 20% of the total volume of the tank needs to be updated. The sturgeon lives in exceptionally clean waters, where there are no mixtures of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and heavy organic substances. Growing up, the sturgeon becomes dull, so a young aquarium fish should be bright in color.
The ideal temperature for the reproduction of the offspring is 8-10 degrees, but little is known about the deposition of the same: the sturgeons reproduce at a decent depth, in troubled waters. To release caviar (this has long been studied), the female rubs against the stones.
The fry hatch in 1-1.5 weeks, the males and females grow equally. The first 2 weeks of life they eat the contents of the yolk sac, then eat alone. Males mature earlier than females, with a length of 28-32 cm (age 4 years). Females become sexually mature for a length of 34-49 cm (age 7 years). In captivity, fish rarely breed - only in rivers or artificial canals, ponds. It is better to buy sterlet in fishing. It is necessary to carefully study the body of a young individual - if there are defects in the form of curvature of the spine, underdevelopment of gill covers, retracted belly.
Aquarium sterlets are very beautiful and spectacular fish, but it is impossible to keep them in a closed tank. If such a desire arises, you will need a large pond with many channels, great depth and acceptable underwater current.
Following the theme of fish farming at home, I would like to highlight the breeding of valuable fish species, in particular the breeding of sturgeons in the same domestic conditions. Many believe that the cultivation of this fish is impossible on their own. suburban areasbut to the delight of black caviar lovers this is not so. Using the example of the Astrakhan breeders, you can see for yourself that sturgeon breeding is not such a desperate idea, starting your business in this direction will not only provide you with black caviar, but also earn solidly. Of course, as in any business, you can't do without tangible investments at the start of the journey, but I dare to assure you that it will be worth it after some time and with the proper construction of the case, your expenses will pay off with interest! In order not to be unfounded, I present the video guide below on how to breed sturgeons on your plot. Good vision!
Today, sturgeon caviar does not need advertising to find stable markets. This is a source healthy vitamins and trace elements for the human body. Prices are consistently high, which allows entrepreneurs who engage in fish farming to receive a steady income. We will dedicate this article to growing sturgeon at home.
Breeding sturgeon at home
Since we are usually not initially talking about the organization of a full-fledged sturgeon farm, a tank with water is enough. The depth of such a pool is usually around 1 meter and the diameter ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 meters. An entrepreneur has the opportunity to serve such a pool himself, and about 1 ton of sturgeon can be grown in it every year. In addition to the tank itself, you need to purchase a pump, filter and compressor. They are needed to provide aeration and filtration in the pool. To reduce labor costs for fish care, you can purchase an automatic feeder. The water temperature must be kept at + 18-20 degrees.
The pools are populated at the rate of 1 sq.m. area of 60 kg of live fish. The peculiarity of growing sturgeon at home is the difficulty in obtaining fry. For small-scale breeding purposes, they are usually purchased. The sturgeons are fed at the bottom of the tank. This satisfies the conditions of their feeding in the natural environment. At first you can buy food and eventually learn how to cook it yourself. It should contain the exact proportions of protein, fat, lysine and phosphorus. The fry that are thrown into the pool weigh no more than 5 grams. They grow unevenly. About 20% of the herd rapidly gains weight, as a result of which they subsequently conquer most of the food.
Such a small pond is suitable for growing sturgeon as a delicacy for fish. Sturgeons are grown before earning 500-600 grams and sold to wholesalers for sale or to restaurants.
farm sturgeon fish caviar is a longer and more laborious process. In nature, the female begins to give eggs only in the 15th year of life. Under man-made conditions, this happens for 5-7 years. Fish growing ponds for caviar will need at least six. They are installed in a separate building or in a heated greenhouse. Sometimes a basement is adapted for these purposes. Since under natural conditions the sturgeon lives in the lower part, it does not need bright lighting at all.
Experts say no more than $ 4,000 is needed to start a business. Many entrepreneurs are attracted to this investment. But, unfortunately, not many people indulge in this business. Breeding sturgeon, in order to breed caviar, scares businessmen with its long-term durability. If you start with the specified amount and develop your business yourself, you can only reach full repayment after 10 years. But after this period, the farmer can count on 30% of the net profit from the amount of the initial costs. Another feature of the business: black caviar, produced on sturgeon farms, never falls under the prohibitions of legislation.
There is the practice of acquiring adult or adult fish. It allows you to reduce amortization times, but also requires large investments in the acquisition of the herd. Adult fish costs about 5 thousand rubles per kilogram, and a three-year-old child - 1 thousand rubles. To form a herd carrying 1 ton of caviar, you will need to invest 100 million rubles. In addition, there is a danger of fish death during transport and how it will take root in new conditions, no one can say for sure.
One of the new technologies that helps to organize the production of sturgeon in a relatively short time, the use of ultrasound testing (closed water supply). There are many varieties of such equipment. It differs in the design of pools and their number and is intended for growing fish with granular feed. The round shape of swimming pools is usually used. Before entering the pool, the water is purified in several stages. Create a circular motion. The main principle of installation is based on such processes:
- Mechanical cleaning
- Biological treatment
- Maintain the temperature
- Oxygen saturation
They can be swapped or combined. A prerequisite is to place them in a heated room. Sturgeon farms using UZV are easily automated. This reduces the complexity of the sturgeon rearing process, but does not take away from the farmer the obligation to monitor the herd regularly.
- The ability to create intense water exchange, oxygenation and powerful filtration. Thanks to this, a dense landing of fish is possible.
- Production space savings, as the pools are quite compact.
- Possibility of constant visual control.
- Automation of care and feeding processes.
- Exclusion of the influence of adverse natural factors on sturgeon.
- Minimize the contributing causes of fish diseases.
- Significant savings in water and feed, which reduces production costs.
Compliance with the technology and sanitary standards of the farm allows the entrepreneur to develop an environmentally friendly product and confirm it with relevant documents.
Sturgeon farming is a promising area in Russia despite the high risks and long payback period. With a clean pond and experienced fish keepers, it can be organized into open ponds. Market players argue that it is with these components that it is now the most difficult, so they prefer to organize closed sturgeon farms.
Growing sturgeon indoors is a very attractive business and a profitable business. This type of red fish offers not only tasty meat, but also the rarest and therefore expensive black caviar. Fish is considered elite, it is specially bought by restaurants, thrown in aquariums to attract the attention of visitors. On an industrial scale, sturgeon grows everywhere, but production is not always in your region. Therefore, it is convenient and profitable to have a sturgeon farm near you, and it is better to make this business a business. Fish farming is believed to make big money!
How to start a sturgeon farm?
For a home business, it will be enough to buy or rent a room of 30 m2 and spend money on the purchase of equipment. It includes water filters and round pools connected to each other by plastic pipes. The diameter of each can vary from one and a half to two meters, the depth is 1-1.2 m. To start a small business, take a shape and try to breed sturgeon at home.
If you decide and have purchased equipment that requires around 3000 cu you will no longer need financial expenses, except for the purchase of fry in the fishing industry. Sturgeon cultivation consists of cleaning the water in swimming pools, constantly monitoring its composition and the health of the filtered systems. Fresh water is added daily to the pools and fish is ordered weekly. Automatic feeders are used in large-scale production, but if you decide to do it at home, then the purchase of expensive equipment will be superfluous, you can manually feed it.
How does sturgeon grow?
When buying fry, it is not possible to determine how the fish will grow in the future. Strong people reach their size within six months and immediately go on sale (about 15-20% of the total number of sturgeons). The weak continue to grow up to 9 months, the rest is average, their growth takes about 6-7 months. Fresh sturgeon always has a price: it is in demand in restaurants, it is gladly delivered to markets and shops. The average size of an individual is 500-600 grams - they will be interested in such fish, and despite the cost, which is 5-6 times higher than ordinary lake fish, the sturgeon always deviates from the outlets.
Under what conditions will the sturgeon grow?
To professionally engage in sturgeon breeding, you need to purchase from 4 to 10 pools, where you will select the fish as it grows. It is noteworthy that black caviar in nature occurs as sturgeon in the eighth year of life, while home-grown individuals give caviar already in the fifth year. Some lovers behave cunningly: they buy 3-4-year-old females on farms with fry in them and grow them themselves.
In the room where the fish grows, the air temperature should be from 18 to 22 ° C, water supply and medium lighting are required. Under unfavorable conditions (a rare water change, lack of filters, poor quality feeding), the fish does not gain weight. On the territory of our country there are 3 farms engaged in the sale of feed for sturgeon. Of course, the fry can be grown on their own, but with the formation of an initial business, the fry are bought in fishing, and then incubated indoors.